Focșani (România)

Focşani (German: Fokschan; Hungarian: Foksány) is the capital city of Vrancea County in Romania on the shores the Milcov river, in the historical region of Moldavia. It has a population (as of 2002) of 101,854.

Focşani lies at a point of convergence for tectonic geologic faults, which raises the risk of earthquakes in the vicinity. It is one of the most popular wine-producing regions in Romania, Odobeşti being just to the northwest. Weisse von Fokshan is a famous local wine, and the vicinity is rich in minerals such as iron, copper, coal, and petroleum.

As a town on the MoldavianWallachian border, Focşani developed into an important trade center halfway between the Russian Empireand the Balkans. A congress between Imperial Russian and Ottoman diplomats took place near the city in 1772. Nearby the town, the Ottomans suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the allied forces of the Habsburg Monarchy under Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Imperial Russia under Alexander Suvorov in 1789 (see Battle of Focşani).

In the 1850s (after the Crimean War), Focşani grew in importance as the center of activities in favor of the union between Wallachia and Moldavia (the Danubian Principalities), leading to the double election of Alexander John Cuza in Iaşi and Bucharest. Following this, it housed a Central Commission regulating the common legislation of the two countries, as well as the High Court of Justice. Both institutions were disestablished in 1864, when the Romanian Principality was founded as a unified state. Focşani’s role in the forming of the modern Romanian state is immortalized in the Union Square Obelisk.

On 30-31 December 1881, following the impact of Zionism on the Romanian Jewish community, the First Congress of all Zionist Unions in Romania for the promotion of the colonization of Eretz Israel was held at Focşani. It was attended by 51 delegates, representing 32 organizations, two press editors, three newspaper reporters and important guests. This 1881 Congress, the first ever held, 16 years before the World Zionist Organization‘s First Zionist (held in Basel), had a major influence on the Romanian Jews, and its proceedings also became known outside the borders of Romania.

In 1917, during the Romanian Campaign of World War I, Focşani and Galaţi were part of a line of fortifications known as the Siret Line. An armistice was signed in the city on 9 December 1917, between the Kingdom of Romania and the Central Powers.

In 1944, during World War II, Focşani was supposed to be part of the fortified Focşani-Nămoloasa-Galaţi line, where 9 elite divisions were preparing to resist the Soviet Red Army‘s advance after the Battle of Târgul Frumos. However, due to the turn of events on 23 August 1944 (see Romania during World War II), this never materialized.

Focşani’s location on the Milcov river which divided Wallachia and Moldavia is depicted on its coat of arms, which represents the heraldic emblems of both principalities and a handshake.

Natives

Source: Wikipedia

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Hărman (România)

Hărman (GermanHonigbergHungarianSzászhermány) is a former Saxon village in Braşov CountyRomania. It is located some 10 km east of Braşov, in the Burzenland region of southeastern Transylvania.

Source: Wikipedia

The Harman fortress is located 8 km north-east of Brasov. It dates back to the 13th century when the Saxons built the original church in a Romanesque style which was restored in a Gothic style.

Strong walls and bulwarks surrounded the church and on its sides there were massive towers. Conceived in the architectural style of the time, the church has a 50m high tower surrounded by four small towers. The local population added new parts to the original church in order to make it more useful to their needs. The chorus was built in square shape with a vault looking like a cross. It was surrounded by two chapels, as were Halmeag and Bartolomeu churches, indicating the influence of the Cistercian’s style.

The most significant event in the history of the fortification is the building in the 14th century of a massive tower on the West side for protective purposes. Though besieged 47 times during the history it never surrendered.

Source: Transylvaniatrips

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Sfântu Gheorghe (România)

 

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Sfântu Gheorghe (Hungarian Sepsiszentgyörgy orSzentgyörgy, Yiddish: סנט דשזארדזש ) is a municipality and capital city of Covasna Countywhich also administers the villages of Chilieni (Kilyén) and Coşeni (Szotyor). Located in the central part of Romania and the historical region of Transylvania, it lies on the Olt River in a valley between the Baraolt and Bodoc Mountains.

Sights

  • Fortified Church (Romanian: Biserică Fortificată; Hungarian: Vártemplom) – constructed in the 14th century in the Gothic style
  • State Archive, the former headquarters of the Hussar battalions
  • County library constructed in 1832 as the seat of the county council
  • Theater used from 1854–1866 as the city hall
  • The market bazaar built in 1868, with a clock tower built in 1893
Population (2002)
– Total 61,543

Source: Wikipedia